Jun 07 2011

North Thailand’s ethnic minorities: the Akha

Published by at 12:02 pm under North Thailand's ethnic minorities


The Akha are probably Thailand’s most visible ‘hill-tribe’ group and these days you certainly don’t need to go anywhere near northern Thailand to come across them. The sight, and sound, of an Akha woman with a wooden frog will be all too familiar in any of the country’s tourist hot spots, from Phuket to Khao San. Many of the younger Akha women are very smart and savvy, and we’ve heard better English banter from some of them than from many professional guides. Those in the tourist trade stock up on trinkets in their home villages (or increasingly these days from wholesalers in Bangkok), leave the kids with the grandparents and split a room with 15 other women as they bid to seek their fortune in the big smoke.

The Akha people, who are a part of the Yi/Lolo sub group of the Tibeto-Burman family, originate in southern China, and most Thai Akha arrived from Burma within the last century.

Muang Sing Akha in former times.

Muang Sing Akha in former times.

Akha and their close relatives the Hani are found across southern Yunnan; Akha villages proliferate in Nam Tha and Muang Sing districts of Laos, across wide swathes of northeastern Burma, and in Thailand they are mainly concentrated in Mae Ai and Tha Ton districts of Chiang Mai, and the Mae Salong region in Chiang Rai.

Typical Akha village near Mae Salong

Typical Akha village near Mae Salong.

The various Akha sub-groups are identified by their elaborate head-dresses, with the three main Thai groups being the Lomi, (trapezium shaped backboard with larger silver beads), Ulo (cone shaped), and Phami (a wider, larger trapezium shape but with smaller mesh silver beads head-dresses) — if we’ve understood correctly.

Ulo ulo

An Ulo Akha woman.

Above is an Ulo Akha woman near Chiang Rai and below a Phami Akha from near Mae Salong.

Phami Akha - we think...

Phami Akha -- we think ...

The below photo from a Christian Phami village — shows very clearly the elaborate headgear.

Ban Lorcha, recto verso

Ban Lorcha, recto verso.

In our defence, it can get very complicated with many variations from village to village and with certain extra hat accoutrements for special occasions and so on. Culturally things can change pretty quickly too, with one village being Christian, another down the trail still animist and yet another housing a Buddhist wat.

The congregation at Mae Salong bapist church is predominately Akha

The congregation at Mae Salong Baptist church is predominately Akha.

Traditionally villages are entered through a wooden and bamboo spirit gate, designed to keep out unwelcome spirits, and usually found in association with graphically carved wooden male and female figures — see below.

Ban Lorcha, entrance gate. The male figure is always placed higher than the female. (Take it up with the Akha, not us!

Ban Lorcha, entrance gate. The male figure is placed higher than the female. (Take it up with the Akha, not us!)

Other defining characteristics of the Akha people are a strong importance placed upon their ancestors and a belief in the “Akha way”,¬† an intricate system of traditional beliefs and values. The Akha are also known for their famous swing ceremony held towards the end of August every year. They’re generally welcoming and friendly to respectful visitors and these days with many of their women being so widely travelled you can also find English speakers in most villages¬† so … go say hi!

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One Response to “North Thailand’s ethnic minorities: the Akha” ...

  1. [...] different; the photogenic orange clad monks are essential, heaven forbid if all the Lisu, Hmong and Akha started wearing jeans and t-shirts and the Vietnamese have to wear those funny pointy hats and, of [...]

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