Dec 30 2011

Geographical names in Thailand

Published by at 1:17 pm under Sights & activities


Look up Chiang Mai province in a guide or on a map and you’ll see the same Thai place names cropping up over and over again: Doi this, Mae that and so on. So what do they all mean? Some you may well have already guessed at but here goes with a few of the more common names you’re likely to come across.

Pick a Chiang, any Chiang?

Pick a Chiang, any Chiang?

Firstly, and obviously… Chiang itself. This is the North Thai, or Lanna, spelling of an old Tai word meaning town or city. We say Tai rather than Thai as it’s common to several of the dialects of the wider Tai language family as well as Northern Thai itself. In Lao the equivalent is Xieng, as in Xieng Kok or Xieng Khouang for example — the former being originally part of the Tai Shan states and the latter founded by the Tai Phuan people — and derivatives are found across the region. Jinghong in Yunnan was formerly Xieng Hung, Burma’s Kentung was known as Chieng Tung and even Vietnam’s Dien Bien Phu is likely a corruption of Xieng Bien Phu.

Black Tai girls near Dien Bien Phu

Black Tai girls near Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam.

Mai means new so Chiang Mai is of course New City, as it was founded later than Chiang Rai, the earlier capital of King Mengrai. (See also Chiang Dao, Chiang Saen, Chiang Khong and so on.)

Paddyfields of Chiang Rai Province

Paddyfields of Chiang Rai province.

Chiang Mai is obviously the capital of the province — or changwat — of the same name and is divided into districts known as amphoe. Districts in turn are comprised of sub-districts or tambon. For example Chiang Mai zoo is in Tambon Suthep, Amphoe Muang, Changwat Chiang Mai or Suthep sub-district, city district of Chiang Mai Province.

Muang is another northern Thai word for city, though it implies a greater degree of importance, political organisation, and even autonomy than Chiang. Traditionally it refers to a kingdom or chiefdom occupying one of the region’s valleys, even if that chiefdom was itself controlled by a larger neighbour. Again, as with variants of Chiang, Muang is found across the Tai-speaking areas of Southeast Asia. This includes for instance Muang La or Muang Khua in Laos, Muang Theang and indeed the present Thai name for Thailand is actually Muang Thai or Kingdom of Thailand. (Though in a divergence from its original usage muang is now commonly used to describe any city or major town in the country, for instance Muang Krabi and Muang Phichit).

Sukhothai, 'Muang Khao' or Old City

Sukhothai, 'Muang Khao' or Old City

To further complicate matters Nakhon (or Nakorn or Nakhorn), derived from the Sanskrit word Nagara,  also means city, though strictly speaking it refers to a capital city such as Nakorn Sri Ayuthaya or Nakhon Si Thammarat. Indeed to emphasis its former status you may sometimes see Chiang Mai referred to as Nakhon Ping.

Nakorn Sri Thammarat, former capital of the kingdom of Ligor

Nakhon Si Thammarat, former capital of the kingdom of Ligor.

Moving down the scale a bit, the ubiquitous Ban or Baan that you’ll see all over maps of Thailand means village (as well as meaning house) so Ban Mai = New Village; some settlements may have grown into large towns but still keep their original ‘village’ name.

In the towns — if you hadn’t worked it out yet – thanon means street and soi equals alley or side street.  The latter are often named after the main street they lead off, so say Ratchadamnoen Soi 1 will be the first sidestreet off Ratchadamnoen Road on the odd numbered side (well, depending upon which end of the street you start at!).

1st side alley on the right off Ratchamanka Rd.

First side alley on the right off Ratchamanka Road.

Other common names of geographical features include mae (river) and doi which is north Thai for mountain — thus giving Suthep Mountain for Doi Suthep and Sai River for Mae Sai.

You should now be ready to begin making up your own Thai place names — Doi Mae Mai and so on — or at least have a better idea of what you’re looking at on a map of Northern Thailand.

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One Response to “Geographical names in Thailand” ...

  1. Andyon 30 Dec 2011 at 10:01 pm

    Just a minor nitpicking – the word เมือง should be better transcribed as Mueang, as it is pronounced quite different from the word ม่วง Muang meaning purple. In the latest version of the RTGS transcription system published in 2000, the spelling with “uea” was introduced, thus many older texts or signs still have the spelling Muang.

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