Elephant riding in Cambodia: Should you?

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First published 12th August, 2012

Do you dream of riding an elephant on your Southeast Asia vacation? Have you always wanted to get close to one of these noble beasts, outside of a zoo setting? Do you just want to see cute baby elephants do tricks? According to some experts, you shouldn't. Especially in Cambodia.

Asian elephants are compelling beasts, but they are often sorely mistreated in the tourism industry. The training that's required to make them safe around people is often akin to torture, as demonstrated by the traditional Thai "phajaan" or "crush," where young animals spirits are systematically broken through torture and social isolation. And don't be fooled when attractions swear up and down that they use humane training techniques: when incomes are on the line, humane, slow-moving training techniques often go out the window.

Elephant outside Sen Monorom in Mondulkiri, Cambodia.
Elephant outside Sen Monorom in Mondulkiri, Cambodia.

Health is another major issues for tourism industry elephants in Southeast Asia, who are often overworked, underfed and beaten if they fail to perform properly. This combination of poor care and equally poor treatment often makes these intelligent, sensitive animals go off the deep end: repetitive swaying and nervous tics are trademark behaviours of depressed elephants -- as well as occasional violent outbursts.

All these considerations don't seem to carry much weight in the Southeast Asian tourist scene, where elephant attractions are both popular and profitable, cashing in on visitors' romantic ideas of an exotic Southeast Asia holiday. Thankfully, there are ways to get up close and personal with elephants in Southeast Asia without contributing to animal cruelty.

The Elephant Valley Project, an elephant sanctuary located in the northeastern Cambodian province of Mondulkiri, is run by the energetic Jack Highwood, who started his charity in 2006, and the Elephant Valley Program in 2007. The Mondulkiri facility now has 12 rescued elephants, obtained from locals. Owners will often will accompany the elephant to the sanctuary as its personal "mahout," or handler.

Gentle giants.
Gentle giants.

The Bunong people of Mondulkiri, an indigenous minority within Cambodia, traditionally captured young elephants from the wild. The elephants would help them log, clear brush and travel for long distances through the jungle. But a wild elephant hasn't been captured in Mondulkiri in 22 years, and much ancient knowledge about elephant care was lost with the Khmer Rouge war years. Now, the few remaining Bunong elephants are used more often in tourist attractions than they are for logging or brush clearing.

Cambodia -- and Mondulkiri, where the bulk of elephant riding in the country takes place -- is an especially dodgy proposition for aspirant elephant riders in Southeast Asia. That's because unlike Thailand and Laos, Cambodia just doesn't have very many elephants -- Highwood says there are 54 domestic elephants left in Mondulkiri, with 14 of those elephants working." It doesn't make sense to ride those last 14 into the ground," Highwood says. Recent studies (PDF) indicate that the Cambodian Asian elephant population is likely between 250 and 600."

It's a different situation in Thailand, Highwood said, where a large number of "unemployed elephants" with nowhere to go as Thailand's forests have been hacked down. "You can go to Thailand and see a trek camp with 40 or 50 elephants -- you can have a replacement," Highwood says, noting that the Thai camps are able to at least give the animals the occasional break. But with so few in Mondulkiri, he says, you can't replace one. "The family needs income," he says.

Highwood says that elephant riding is rarely the profound experience tourists expect. Elephant riding is not on offer at his sanctuary; Elephant Valley instead gives visitors a chance to touch, wash and get close to his rescued charges.

"A lot of Western tourists go on an elephant ride and say, ‘Wow, that was horrible. The elephant looked terrible. We ate some food and came back,' " Highwood says. What tourism offers, he adds, is the chance to get people to think.

Long time Mondulkiri resident and actively-retired development worker Bill Herod, who has worked for many years with the Bunong, agrees with Highwood's assessment. "Riding elephants may be a great photo-op, but it isn't much fun. It is uncomfortable and there isn't much to see. Sitting 12 feet up in the air and having your face lashed by tree branches, you can't see much of the elephant or your surroundings."

Get up close, but no need to ride.
Get up close, but no need to ride.

In Mondulkiri, Herod adds, the Bunong people aren't seeing much in the way of profits from elephant riding either. Much of the money paid for elephant riding goes to the business interests that make the arrangement, such as guesthouses, travel operators and guides, rather than to the person who owns and cares for the elephant or to the Bunong villagers. "If you care about elephants, don't get taken for a ride," he advises.


Poor Southeast Asians need to make an income, and elephants are a great way for locals to make money from tourism. That's a very important consideration, and it falls to outside organisations to convince elephant attraction operators and elephant owners that they can treat animals more kindly without taking too big a financial hit.

Highwood's efforts to convince locals to keep some forest land for sanctuary elephants includes providing free medical care for three nearby villages. Elephant owners and landowners willing to rent to the sanctuary are paid in rice, as much as they would get from farming.

"The idea behind this than is they see a value in the forest, income from the forest, worth," said Highwood. "Otherwise, they don't see any jobs coming from the forest, just wasteland."


If you are deadset on riding an elephant, here are a few ways for amateurs to determine if an animal is well-treated or not - and if a elephant programme is worth your time and money.

Before you patronise any kind of attraction or tour featuring elephants, do some research first. Check their website, if they have one, and see what customer reviews on travel websites have to say about the establishment. The project's emphasis should be focused on rescuing and taking care of both elephants and the local community, not on serving tourists -- although responsible tourist programmes are great too.

Once there, check the animal. Can you see the animal's ribs? Can you see dips behind the hipbone? According to Highwood, elephants typically eat for 15 to 20 hours a day, but are often fed too little in captivity. "Families don't feed them, assuming they can get enough in the forest or paddock," he says.

Check for signs of dehydration, too. "If the toenails are pulled back, cracking or peeling, [the elephant is] really dehydrated," says Highwood. "They don't have time in the river, and probably don't drink enough."

An Elephant Valley resident.
An Elephant Valley resident.

Is the animal limping, or favouring one foot over the other? Does the animal have visible scar tissue? Can you see abscesses, wounds, or weeping sores?

Observe the animal's behaviour, too. Is the elephant swaying, or biting its own trunk? These are signs it is in pain, or nervous. Tired elephants will look listless, and will sometime rest their trunk on the ground.

Circus acts, "tricks," or many elephant rides a day are bad signs. Reputable sanctuaries and trekking operations usually won't offer these attractions.

Consider community buy-in. Is the programme making an effort to reach out to the community in some way?

More information
The Elephant Valley Project
We paid US$30 for a half day trip which included transport and lunch.
World Elephant Day

Story by Faine Greenwood
Faine is a DC and Southeast Asia based journalist/geek/blogger - check out Faine's website at http://fainegreenwood.com/.

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Read 11 comment(s)

  • Great article! I visited The Elephant Nature Park near Chiang Mai, Thailand, which is also working to protect these wonderful creatures and educate mahouts and villagers on caring for these animal with love and respect. It was an awesome day, we spent so much time with the elephants, bathing them in the river and feeding them (not riding). The way it should be! They also run a volunteer program, see


    and my post:


    Posted by Sarah Somewhere on 13th August, 2012

  • We have to partially disagree with this article. We had been to Mondulkiri and had a fantastic experience with local Bunong people and elephant riding. Our "driver" was but a boy and he was completely kind and gentle to the elephant, he let it eat as it liked. They seemed to have a real bond together. So the whole experience had a very different then in Thailand and Laos, where some elephants I've seen are truly in poor conditions.

    Posted by Sally on 17th August, 2012

  • we found this article very useful, and will check the condition & treatment of the elephants at Buon Ma Thuot in Vietnam, before we decide if we will or won't ride on them - at present, we are defaulting to 'no, we won't' :-)

    Posted by toby holland on 1st January, 2013

  • I plan to travel to asia soon and do plan an elephant riding trip. I guarantee no one will receive any funds from me if their animals are not well taken care of. This article opened my eyes thanks.

    Posted by Roy on 9th July, 2013

  • I just love animals! And another news… I just found out that Manila Zoo has a cute elephant named Mali, and she is the only elephant in the Philippines! She has lived there for almost all of her lives, for more than 30 years. The zoo should feel like her sweet and cozy home now. But then, I read some articles in PETAAsiaPacific.com, and I noticed that Mali is in fact sad and lonely! Look at her here: https://www.facebook.com/FreeMali. She is like a prisoner, who cannot spend her days with her friends, roam in vast territories, and have delicious adequate food! She even suffers from foot problems. Why does she deserve this? :( Please Help Her!

    Posted by Moon on 22nd July, 2013

  • A Englishman has gone to Cambodia and set up a bogus conservation organization supposedly helping elephants the reality is he is lining his pockets with the money from unsuspecting people who want to help these majestic animals....there is a special place in hell for these sorts of people not only is he not saving elephants but he is hurting the native people who really do so much to provide a good life to these creatures

    Posted by Dave on 31st July, 2013

  • There is a new Elephant rescue camp a hr from Siem Reap now opened. Owned and run
    By Lek of the Elephant Nature Park.U can volunteer at the park.
    No riding , no circus acts, no hooks and beatings here.

    A beautiful way to spend a couple of days in the Bush.This is the real deal folks.

    Please ck it out Stuwart.

    Posted by Ellen cam on 14th September, 2014

  • I visited a new elephant sanctuary run and owned by Cambodians during my stay in Mondulkiri, Cambodia. Unlike the nearby Elephant Valley Project you can be sure that your money doesn't end up in England.

    I had a great time on their two day elephant adventure and jungle trek tour. The guide Mr Tree is very passionate about elephants and is a role model for other Cambodians because he agrees that elephants should not be ridden by tourists.

    The highlight of the trip was helping to wash the elephants at a waterfall in the jungle. Amasing!

    Posted by Lisa on 26th September, 2014

  • ooops forgot to mention the new elephant sanctuary name in Cambodia - the Mondulkiri Project


    Posted by Lisa on 29th September, 2014

  • It is the case in every single country that uses the elephants in the tourist industry. You should never ride them! It is better to go to a place like the Elephant Sanctuary near Chiang Mai and enjoy walking with them.

    Posted by Jo (The Blonde) on 13th February, 2015

  • Alternatively the Cambodian Wildlife Sanctuary, managed by Elephant Nature Park (Chiang Mai), is a great place to volunteer. Definitely no elephant riding there :)

    Posted by Leann on 13th April, 2015

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