There were probably Mon settlements in the area before this, such as the nearby 11th century site of Wiang Khum Kham, but Chiang Mai city as it appears today started to take shape thanks to Mengrai at the end of the 13th century. The city is located in the north–south orientated Ping Valley and was initially established close to the west bank. Doi Suthep and the Pui mountains are to the immediate west and the Doi Saket hills are a few kilometres off to the east.
Today Chiang Mai’s downtown is relatively small, with an estimated 150,000 people calling it home, though the urban surrounds and suburbs probably account for at least a million people in all. The population is traditionally northern Thai, with scatterings of minorities such as Shan, but being a relatively wealthy city it’s now attracting workers from across the kingdom. Being an attractive place to live means it also sees a steady flow of more affluent Thais relocating from Bangkok and elsewhere.
Chiang Mai is also very popular with expats and increasingly Thai tourists as much as foreign visitors—and it is not difficult ... Travelfish members only (Full text is around 2,700 words.)
36 other destinations in Northern Thailand